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KHOESAAN LANGUAGE AND ETHNIC NAMES

Compiled by Jouni Maho, 1994-97 [update: July 2003]

This is a reference list of various names for Khoesaan languages/dialects (Khoesaanyms) that you are likely to encounter in the literature. The list is mainly intended for people already acquainted with the Khoesaan languages. The first thing that follows below is a simplified classificatory tree of the Khoesaan languages which roughly indicates genetic relationships (provided you believe in such relationships, that is). From there you can click your way to a listing of various Khoesaanyms, which includes different spellings of the same name, different names for the same language-dialect and/or various dialects belonging to a certain language. (This little "mess" might be structured in the future.) The list also includes the classificatory codes/numberings used by Dorothea F. Bleek, Ernst O. J. Westphal, Oswin R. A. Köhler and Jürgen Cristoph Winter.

Note the following net-adapted orthographical modifications: "Ø" is used for the labial click, and "+" is used for the alveo-palatal click; Other slight modifications concern omissions of some diacritics (e.g. tilde on "u"), translitteration of some less common letters.

KHOESAAN LANGUAGES/DIALECTS

  • 1000 Southern Khoesaan or Kwi
    • 1100 !Xóõ or Taa
      • 1110 West !Xóõ, Ng/amani, /Nu-//en, N/usan, etc.
      • 1120 East !Xóõ, +Hùã, Kakia, Tshasi, etc.
    • 1200 !Wi
      • 1211 /'Auni, Ki/hazi, Xatia and [Hahn's] /Nusa
      • 1212 +Khomani or N/huki
      • 1220 +Unkwe or //Kx'au
      • 1230 N//g-!ke or Eland Bushman
      • 1240 /Xam or Cape Bushman
      • 1251 //Ku-//'ke
      • 1252 !Gã-!ne
      • 1260 Seroa, 'Khuai, Maluti (Mountain) Bushman
      • 1270 !Xuai or Lichenstein's Boesjesman
      • 1280 //Xegwi, Eastern or Lake Chrissie Bushman
  • 2000 Eastern +Hòã
  • 3000 Northern Khoesaann or Ju
  • 4000 Central Khoesaan or Khwe
    • 4100 Khoekhoe(gowab) or Hottentot
      • 4110 Nama-Damara
        • 4111 Sesfontein Damara or Ao-guwun
        • 4112 Hai//om, Kedi and Xwaga
        • 4113 Damara
        • 4114 Nama
        • 4115 Oorlam or Little Nama
      • 4120 Gemsbok Nama
      • 4130 Griqua or Xiri
      • 4140 Korana or !Ora
      • 4150 Cape Hottentot
    • 4200 Khoe Bushman
      • 4210 The Kxoe Group
      • 4220 The Naro Group
      • 4230 The G//ana Group
      • 4240 The Shua Group
      • 4250 The Tshwa Group
  • 5000 Kwadi
  • 6000 Sandawe
  • 7000 Hadza


0000 Khoesaan

Khoesaan; Khoesan; Khoisan; Khoi-San; Khoi-Saan; Khwesan; Khwesaan; Click; Hottentot-Bushman.


1000 Southern Khoesaan or Kwi

Southern Khoesaan; South Khoisan; Kwi; !Kwi; Khoisan méridional.

Classificatory info
Bleek 1927 = Southern Group (S).
Bleek 1929 = Southern Group (S).
Bleek 1956 = Southern Group (S).
Westphal 1971 = Taa Family (3.00) & !Wi Family (4.00).
Köhler 1981 = Khoisan méridional (C.35-55).
Köhler 1987 = South Khoisan or !Kwi.
Winter 1981 = Nos.1-38.


1100 !Xóõ or Taa

!Xóõ; !Xõ; !Xoo; !Xong; !Xon; Kong; !Xo; !Kõ; !Ko; !Kõ:; !Kõõ; Koon; Gxon; Magon; Magong; Magoon; !Xónya +tâã; !Xonya; !Xonja; !Khonya; !Xónyate-Ø'âni; !Xonyate-Ø'ani; Lala; Balala; '//Ahe; '//Nahe; Tâa +âã; Taa +aa; Taa; +Hûa; +Huã; +Hua; Bush-B.

Classificatory info
Westphal 1962 = +Huã-Buschmann.
Westphal 1963 = Bush-B.
Westphal 1971 = Taa Family (3.00).
Köhler 1975 = Lala (2.2.1.2.1.2.1); !Khonya (2.2.1.2.1.2).
Köhler 1981 = Groupe Taa (C.IV.48-55).
Köhler 1987 = Kakia (!Kwi B.2c).
Winter 1981 = Nos.30-38.

Select references
Dickens 1977 [!Xõ]; Dickens & Traill 1977 [!Xõo]; Eibl-Eibesfeldt 1972, 1974ab, 1975 [!Ko]; Heinz 1966, 1971, 1979, [!Xõ; !Xõ]; Heinz & Maguire 1974 [!Kõ]; Heinz & Martiny 1980 [!Xõ]; Köhler 1974b [!Khong]; Ladefoged & Traill 1984 [!Xóõ]; Maingard 1958 [!Kõ:]; Traill 1973, 1974ab, 1975, 1977ab, 1979ab, 1981, 1985, 1994 [!Xo; !Xõ; !Xõo; !Xóõ]; Ziervogel 1955 [!Ko].


1110 Western !Xóõ

Western !Xóõ; !Àma-Ø'âni (Westerners); !Ama-Ø'ani; !Ama-Øani; Dzutshwa !àma; Ng/amani; N/amani; N/gamani; /Ngamani; /Namani; '//Ngahmsa; '//Nahmsa; '//Nga'msa; '//Nam'sa; /Namasa; 'ØNahnsã; 'ØNahnsa; !Gao-kxâatê; !Gao-kx'aate; '/Num-de; '/Numde; /Nu-//e:n; /Nu-//en; Ng/u-//en; Ng/u//en; Nu//en; /U//ein; Ng/u/ei; /Nu//en; //U//en; //Nu-//'en; /Nu-//'en; N/usan; Nusan; /Nusan; /Nusa; Ng/usan; Nu-san; Noosan; Ng/usan; O'a; Oha.

Classificatory info
Bleek 1927 = /Nu-//e:n (S.6).
Bleek 1929 = /Nu //en (S.6).
Bleek 1956 = /Nu//en (S.6); /Nusan (S.6a).
Westphal 1971 = Ng/amani Group (3.20); Ng/amani (3.21a); Ng/u//en (3.21e); Ng/usan (3.21f).
Köhler 1975 = //Nu-//'en (2.2.1.1.1.1.1); /Namani (2.2.1.2.1.1.1).
Köhler 1981 = !Khong occidental (C.IV.52); !Khong de Kongowa (C.IV.54).
Köhler 1987 = /Nu-//'en !Khong (!Kwi B.2b); /Namani (!Kwi B.?).
Winter 1981 = /Nusan (4); /Nu-//'en (32); /Ngamani (33); Oha (34).


1120 Eastern !Xóõ

Eastern !Xóõ; +Geê-Ø'âni (Northeners); +Gee-Ø'ani; /E-!um-Ø'ani; !Um-Øani; ØQhõa-Ø'âni (In-Betweeners); ØQhoa-Ø'ani; ØAh-Øani; Okwa !Xo; /Oa-k'haute-Øani; Gau-Ø'ani (Soft Sand People); +Huã-Ø'âni (southeners); +Hua-Ø'ani; +Hua-Øwani; +Áã-Ø'âni (Easterners); +Aa-Ø'ani; +A-Øani; !Ojo-Øani; Lone Tree !Xóõ; Western +Hùã; Western +Huã; Western +Hua; +Huang; /Hua; /Hu; /Hû; Kakia; Khakhea; Masarwa; Tshasi; Tshase.

Classificatory info
Bleek 1927 = Masarwa (S.5).
Bleek 1929 = Masarwa [Kakia] (S.5).
Bleek 1956 = Masarwa (S.5).
Westphal 1971 = +Hûa Group (3.10); +Hûa-Øwani (3.11); Kakia (3.21d).
Köhler 1975 = +Hûâ (2.2.1.2.1.2.3); Tshase (2.2.1.2.1.2.4); Khakhea (2.2.1.2.1.2.5).
Köhler 1981 = !Khong oriental (C.IV.48); +Huang (C.IV.49); Tshasi (C.IV.50); Khakhea (C.IV.51).
Köhler 1987 = Kakia (!Kwi B.2c).
Winter 1981 = Kakia (30); Masarwa (31); !Xõ (36); Western +Hûâ (37); Tshasi (38).


1200 !Kwi

!Wi; !Kwi; !Kwi Oriental, Septentr & Occidental; Bush-B, Bush-C & Bush-D.

Classificatory info
Westphal 1963 = Bush-B; Bush-C; Bush-D.
Westphal 1971 = Ng/amani Group (3.20); !Wi Family (4.00); N/huki Group (4.10); //Xegwi Group (4.20); Southeastern Group (4.30).
Köhler 1981 = !Kwi occidental (C.I.35-36); !Kwi septentrional (C.II.37-44); !Kwi oriental (C.III.45-47).
Winter 1981 = Nos.1-29.


1211 /'Auni, Ki/hazi, Xatia and [Hahn's] /Nusa

/'Auni; /Auni; Auni; /Auo; Ki/hazi; Ki/hasi; Xatia; Katia; Khathea; Khatia; Kattea; Vaalpens; +Kê +kê; +Eikusi; +Kusi; /Eikusi; /Kêî; +Kaurure-//nai [Pabst & Schinz]; /Nusa [Hahn]; N/usa; /Nusan.

Classificatory info
Bleek 1927 = /Auni & Xatia (S.4).
Bleek 1929 = /Auni (S.4).
Bleek 1956 = /Auni (S.4); Xatia (S.4a); Ki/hazi (S.4b).
Westphal 1971 = Xatia (3.21b); Ki/hazi (3.21c); /Auni (3.21g).
Köhler 1975 = /'Auni (2.1.1.1.1.1.1).
Köhler 1981 = /'Auni (C.II.37); Ki-/hazi (C.II.38); Khatia, +Keikusi, /Kêî & Vaalpens (C.II.41).
Köhler 1987 = /Auni (!Kwi B.2a).
Winter 1981 = /Nusa (25); +Kaurure-//nai (26); /'Auni (27); Ki/hazi (28); +Kê-+kê (29).

Select references
Bleek 1937ab [/Auni]; Hahn 1870a [/Nusa]; Schinz 1891 [+Kaurure-//nai].


1212 +Khomani or N/huki

+Khomani; N/huci; Ng/huki; /Nguh:ci; /Ngu':ci; /Nguhci; /Ngu'ci; /Nhuki; /Huki; N/huki.

Classificatory info
Bleek 1956 = +Khomani (S.2a).
Westphal 1971 = Ng/huki (4.11a); +Khomani (4.11b).
Köhler 1975 = +Khomani (3.1.2.1.1.1.1).
Köhler 1981 = N/huki (C.II.39); +Khomani (C.II.40).
Köhler 1987 = +Khomani (!Kwi C.3a); /Nhuki (!Kwi C.?).
Winter 1981 = +Khomani (23); /Nguhci (24).

Select references
Doke 1936 [+Khomani]; Maingard 1937 [+Khomani].


1220 +Unkwe or //Kx'au

+Unkwe; +Kunkwe; //Kx'au; //Kxau; //Kh'au; //Xau.

Classificatory info
Bleek 1956 = //Kxau (S.2b).
Westphal 1971 = //Kxau (4.11c).
Köhler 1975 = //Kh'au (3.1.3.1.1.1.1).
Köhler 1981 = +Kunkwe (C.II.42); //Kh'au (C.II.43).
Köhler 1987 = //Khau (!Kwi C.3b).
Winter 1981 = +Unkwe (18).

Select references
Meinhof 1929 [+Unkwe].


1230 N//g-!ke or Eland Bushman

N//g-!ke; //Ng-!'e; //N-!k'e; N//g; //Ng; Ng// +e; //N; //Ng-!kwa; //Ng-!kwi; //Ng!ke; //Ng-degan.

Classificatory info
Bleek 1927 = //N-!k'e (S.2).
Bleek 1929 = //Ng !ke (S.2).
Bleek 1956 = //Ng (S.2).
Westphal 1971 = //Ng-!ke (4.11d).
Köhler 1981 = //Ng-!'e (C.I.36).
Köhler 1987 = //Ng-!ke (!Kwi A.1b).
Winter 1981 = //Ng-!ke (19).


1240 /Xam or Cape Bushman

/Xam; /Kham; /Kham-ka-!k'e; /Xam-ka-!k'e; /Xam-ka-!'e; /Kamka-!ke; +Nusa [Müller]; Prieska; Oudsthoorn; Katkop; Strontbergen.

Classificatory info
Bleek 1927 = /Kham-ka-!k'e (S.1).
Bleek 1929 = /Kam-ka !ke (S.1).
Bleek 1956 = /Xam (S.1); Oudsthoorn (S.1a).
Westphal 1971 = Southwestern Group (4.40); /Xam (4.41a); Southwestern or Cape Family (8.00?).
Köhler 1975 = /Kham (1.1.1.1.1.1.1).
Köhler 1981 = /Kham (C.I.35).
Köhler 1987 = /Kham (!Kwi A.1a).
Winter 1981 = Oudsthoorn (1); +Nusa (5); /Kham (6); Katkop (7); Strontbergen (8); Prieska (9).

Select references
Bleek 1929, 1930 [/Kham-ka-!k'e; /Xam-ka-!'e ]; Bleek 1931a, 1932abc, 1933ab, 1935, 1936ab [!Xam; /Xam]; Hewitt 1986 [/Xam]; Meriggi 1929ab [/Xam]; Müller 1877b [+Nusa].


1251 //Ku-//'ke

//Ku-//'ke; //Kû-//'e; //Ku-//'e; //Ku-//ke; //Kû-//ke; //Khu-//'e.

Classificatory info
Bleek 1956 = //Ku//e (S.2c).
Westphal 1971 = //Ku//e (4.31b).
Köhler 1975 = //Khu-//'e (3.1.3.1.2.1.1).
Köhler 1981 = //Ku-//'e (C.II.44).
Köhler 1987 = //Ku-//'e (!Kwi C.3c).
Winter 1981 = //Kû-//'e (16).


1252 !Gã-!ne

!Ga-!ne; !Gã-!ne; !Gã-!nge; !Ga-!nge; !Gãne; !Gane; !Gang-!ne.

Classificatory info
Bleek 1956 = !Gã!nge (S.2e).
Westphal 1971 = !Gã!ne (4.31d).
Köhler 1975 = !Gã-!ne (4.1.1.1.1.1.1).
Köhler 1981 = !Gang-!ne (C.III.45).
Köhler 1987 = !Gãne (!Kwi C.?).
Winter 1981 = !Gã-!ne (12).

Select references
Anders 1935 [!Gã-!ne].


1260 Seroa, 'Khuai, Maluti or Mountain Bushman

Seroa; Babomantsu; [Arbousset's] 'Khuai; 'Khuaï; Khuai; Wuras' Bushman; Maluti Bushman; Mountain Bushman.

Classificatory info
Bleek 1927 = Wuras (S.2a).
Bleek 1956 = Seroa (S.2d).
Westphal 1971 = Seroa (4.31c).
Köhler 1975 = Seroa (3.1.3.2.1.1.1).
Köhler 1981 = Seroa [Babomantsu] (C.III.46).
Köhler 1987 = Seroa (!Kwi C.?).
Winter 1981 = Seroa (13-15); 'Khuai (13); Wuras (14); Maluti (15).

Select references
Arbousset & Daumas 1842 ['Khuai]; Bertin 1886 [Seroa]; Müller 1877b [Seroa]; Wuras 1920a [Wuras' Bushman].


1270 !Xuai

!Xuai; !Khuai; Khuai; [Lichenstein's] Boesjesman.

Classificatory info
Köhler 1981 = !Khuai (C.I.35?).
Winter 1981 = Boesjesman (2); !Khuai (3).

Select references
Bertin 1886 [Khuai]; Lichenstein 1808 [Boesjesman (= !Xuai)]; Müller 1877b [!Khuai].


1280 //Xegwi, Eastern Bushman and Lake Chrissie Bushman

//Xegwi; //Khegwi; //Xegwe; //Xekwi; Kl'egwi; Nkqeshe; //Kxigwi; Amankgqwigqwi; Gi/kxigwi; Ki//kxigwi; //Xogwi; Lxloukxle; Abathwa; Batwa; Amabusmana; Eastern Bushman; Kloukle; Tloutle; Tloue; Boroa?.

Classificatory info
Bleek 1927 = Batwa (S.3).
Bleek 1929 = Batwa (S.3).
Bleek 1956 = Batwa (S.3).
Westphal 1971 = //Xegwi Group (4.20); //Xegwi (4.21).
Köhler 1975 = //Khegwi (4.1.2.1.1.1.1).
Köhler 1981 = //Khegwi [Batwa] (C.III.47).
Köhler 1987 = //Khegwi (!Kwi C.3d).
Winter 1981 = //Xogwi (20); //Kxigwi (21); Kl'egwi (22).

Select references
Lanham & Hallowes 1956ab [//Xegwi]; Potgieter 1955 [Lake Chrissie Bushmen].


2000 Eastern +Hòã

Eastern +Hòã; Eastern +Hùã; Eastern +Hûâ; /Huã; +Huã; +Hoang; +Hoang de Dutlwe; +'Amkoe; Tshasi de Khutse.

Classificatory info
Köhler 1975 = +Hòã (3.1.1.1.1.1.1).
Köhler 1981 = +'Amkoe (C.V.56-57); +Hoang [de Dutlwe] (C.V.56); Tshasi de Khutse (C.V.57).
Winter 1981 = +Hòã (39).

Select references
Gruber 1973a, 1975 [+Hòã]; Traill 1973b, 1974c [+Hûâ]; Westphal 1974 [+Hûâ].


3000 Northern Khoesaan or Ju

Northern Khoesaan; Nordkhoisan; Khoisan Septentrional; Zhu; Zu; Ju; Qgû; Qgu !Khung; Bush-A.

Classificatory info
Bleek 1927 = Northern Group (N).
Bleek 1929 = Northern Group (N).
Bleek 1956 = Northern Group (N).
Westphal 1971 = Ju Family (2.00).
Köhler 1981 = Khoisan septentrional or !Khung (A.1-4).
Köhler 1987 = North Khoisan or Zhu.
Winter 1981 = Nos.40-63.

Select references
Orthography 1969 [!Xû]; Traill 1992 [!Xû].


3100 !'O-!Khung

Northern !Kung; Northern !Xùû; Nord-!Khung; Zhu Septentrional; North !Khung; !'O-!Khung; !'O-!Kung; !O-!Khung; !O-!Kung; !O-!Ung; Q'oqgu; !Xuu; !Kû; !Ku; !Khû; !Khu; !Xû; !Xu; Maligo; Kwankala; Kwankhala; Aakwankala; Ovakwankala; Va-kwa-n-kala; Sekela; Sekele; Vasekela; Vassekele; Cassequele.

Classificatory info
Bleek 1929 = !O !kung (N.3).
Bleek 1956 = !O!Kung (N.3).
Westphal 1971 = !Xû-Angola Group (2.20); Maligo (2.21); !O!Ung (2.22).
Köhler 1975 = Nord-!Khung.
Köhler 1981 = Zhu septentr! (A.III.5-7).
Köhler 1987 = North !Khung (Zhu B.3).
Winter 1981 = !O-!Kung (61); !'O-!Kung (62); Maligo (63).

Select references
Almeida 1951, 1954, 1956, 1957, 1965 [Va-kwa-n-kala; Cassequele; Kwankhala; Sekele; Bosquimanos]; Castro Jr. 1951 [Va-kwa-n-kala]; Estermann 1949 [!Kung de Angola]; Guerreiro 1960, 1968 [Ovakwankala; !Khû de Angola]; Santos 1958 [Vassekele]; Snyman 1980 [Angolan !Xû].


3200 !Xung

Central !Kung; Central !Xùû; West-!Khung; Zhu Occidental; Kung; !Kung; !Khung; !Kû; !Kun; !Ku; !Xu; !Xû; !Xun; !Xung; Chû:; !Hu; Qxû; Qxun; Qxu; //Kun; Kung-Ekoka; Ekoka-!Xu; Hei//kum; Hei//um; Heikum; Mpungo; Mpunguvlei; Ukuambi; Uukualuthi; Ukualuthu; Makalani?.

Classificatory info
Bleek 1927 = !Kung (N.2); Hei-//kum (N.3).
Bleek 1956 = !Kû & !Kung (N.2); Hei//kum (N.2a); Hei//kum-dialect (N.2b); Hei//kum-dialect (N.2c).
Westphal 1971 = !Xû-SWA Group (2.10); !Xû (2.11).
Köhler 1975 = West-!Khung.
Köhler 1981 = Zhu occidental (A.II.2-3).
Köhler 1987 = West !Khung (Zhu B.2).
Winter 1981 = Uukualuthi (50); Ukuambi (51); Hei//um (52); Heikum (53); Chu (54); !Kung (55); Kung (56); !Kû (57); !Kû (58); !Kung (59); Kung (60).

Select references
Crous 1976 [Khung]; Doke 1925 [Chû:]; Heikkinen 1986, 1987 [!Xû]; Köhler 1972, 1973a [!Khung]; Lebzelter 1928, 1929, 1934, 1937 [//Kun; !Kun; Uukualuthi; Ukuambi; !Kung]; Lloyd 1911 [!Kû]; Passarge 1905, 1907 [Kung]; Vedder 1911, 1912 [!Kû]; Werner 1906 [Heikum; Kung]; Wilhelm 1922 [!Kun].


3300 Ju/'hoan

Central !Kung; Southern !Xùû; Ost Khung; Ost !Khung; Zhu Oriental; East !Khung; Zhu/'hoasi; Zhu/'hõasi; Zhu/oase; Zhu/oase; Zjuc'hoasi; Zjuc'hoa; Zjuc'hôa; Zu/'hõasi; Zu/'oasi; Zhu/oà; Zhu/oa; Zhu/hoa; Zhu'oase; Zhu/hoà; Zhu'oasi; Zu/'hoãsi; Zû'/'wã-si; Zu'/'wa-si; Dzu/'oãsi; Dzu'oasi; Dzu/'oãsi; Dzu/'oasi; Dzu/'oa:si; Dzu-/hoa; Ju'oasi; Ju/'hoã; Ju/'hoa; Ju/wasi; Ssu +gnussi; Ssu-ghassi; Ssu-gnassi; Ssu-gnoassi; Tshumkwe; Tsumkwe; !Kung-Tsumkwe; Dobe !Kung; /Du/da !Kung; Cuca !Kung; /Xai-/xai; Caecae; Kaikai; /Ai/ai; Xaixai; !Gaig!ai; !Gai!gai; G!ai-g!ai; Samangaigai; Cho/ana; Chassis; Khownha; Bahti; Mahupa; Venter; Kubi; Khumsa; Nam-tchoha; Deboragu; Gura; Gautscha; Keitsa; Kautsa; !No!go; Gam; //Gon//gana; Dom!na; +Go+owe; /Gun/ga; Nyae-nyae.

Classificatory info
Bleek 1927 = !Kung (N.2).
Bleek 1929 = !Kung (N.2).
Bleek 1956 = Ssu-gnassi & Dzu/'oa:si (N.2).
Westphal 1971 = !Xû-SWA Group (2.10); !Xû (2.11).
Köhler 1975 = Ost-!Khung.
Köhler 1981 = Zhu oriental (A.I.1a-c).
Köhler 1987 = East !Khung (Zhu A.1).
Winter 1981 = Zhu/hoà (40); Zhu/oase (41); Zhu/'õasi (42).

Select references
Dickens 1994 [Ju/'hoan]; Honken 1977, 1979 [Zhu/'hõasi]; Köhler 1971, 1981a [!Xû]; Maingard 1957 [Dzu/'õã:si]; Lee 1972, 1984 [Dobe !Kung]; Marshall 1957, 1960, 1961, 1976 [!Kung; Nyae Nyae !Kung]; Orthography 1987 [Zjuc'hôa]; Snyman 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1975ab, 1977ab, 1978, 1980, 1983 [!Xû; !Kung; Zu/'hõasi; Zu'hoasi]; Yellen 1976 [!Kung].


3400 +Kx'au-//eisi

Southern !Kung; West-!khung; Zhu occidental; Ghanzi !Kung; +Au-//eisi; //Kau-//e:n; X'aoxeisi; //''Kau-//en; //Kau-//en; //Au-//en; //Au-//eî; //Au-//ei; Kau-//en; +Kx'au-//'ei; Kx'au-//'eî; +Au-//e:n; +Au-kwe; +Au-//ai; +'Au//bêi; +'Au-//bei; //Kh'au-//en; //Kh'au-//'en; 'Akhoe; //Aukwe; //Au//en; //Au//ei; //Kau-//-en; //Au-kwe; /Aukwe; Aukwe; +Au-san; Auen; Kaukau; Koko; //No!gau; Nogau; Agau.

Classificatory info
Bleek 1927 = //Kau-//e:n (N.1).
Bleek 1929 = //K'au //en (N.1).
Bleek 1956 = //K''au//en (N.1); Nogau (N.1a).
Westphal 1971 = !Xû-SWA Group (2.10); +Au-//eî (2.11).
Köhler 1975 = West-!Khung.
Köhler 1981 = Zhu occidental (A.II.2-3).
Köhler 1987 = //Kh'au-//'en (Zhu B.2).
Winter 1981 = Aukwe (43); Aukwe (44); //Au//en (45); Aukwe (46); +Au-san (47); Auen (48); Nogau (49).

Select references
Lebzelter 1934 [Nogau]; Passarge 1905, 1907 [Aukwe]; Schinz 1891 [+Au-san]; Seiner 1909 [Aukwe]; Westhuizen 1972, 1979ab [Gobabis-!Xû; !Xû; Qquñ].


4000 Central Khoesaan or Khwe

Central Khoesaan; Zentralkhoisan; Hottentot-Family; Khwe; Khwe-kovab; Khoisan Central.

Classificatory info
Westphal 1971 = Hottentot Family (1.00).
Köhler 1981 = Khoisan central or Khoe (B.8-34).
Köhler 1987 = Central Khoisan or Khoe.
Winter 1981 = Nos.64-139.


4100 Khoekhoe

Khoekhoe; Khoikhoi; Khoekhoen; Khoikhoin; Khoe Occidental; Nama-!Ora; Nama-Kaphottentottisch; Hottentot; Classical Hottentot; Klassische Hottentottisch.

Classificatory info
Westphal 1962 = Klassische Hottentottisch.
Westphal 1963 = Nama-Kaphottentottisch.
Westphal 1971 = Nama-!Ora Group (1.10).
Köhler 1981 = Khoe occidental (B.III.18-22).
Köhler 1987 = Khoe A.
Winter 1981 = Nos.114-138.


4110 Nama-Damara or Khoekhoegowab

Nama; Nama-Damara; Damara-Nama; Hottentot; Khoikhoi; Khoekhoen; Khoikhoin; Khoekhoekovab; Khoekhoegowab.

Classificatory info
Bleek 1927 = Hottentot (H).
Bleek 1929 = Hottentot (H).
Bleek 1956 = Hottentot (H).
Westphal 1971 = Nama (1.11).
Köhler 1981 = Nama (B.III.18-19).
Köhler 1987 = Nama (Khoe A.1).
Winter 1981 = Nos.114-125.

Select references
Bleek 1858 [Hottentot]; Bulck 1952 [Khoin]; Dammann 1982 [Nama]; Dempwolff 1935abc [Nama-Hottentot]; Dove 1900 [Nama]; Drexel 1929 [Nama]; Eggert 1856 [Nama]; Eiseb, Giess & Haacke 1991 [Khoekhoe]; Essen 1955, 1957, 1962, 1966ab [Namahottentottischen]; Grasserie 1896 [Nama]; Günther 1969 [Hottentottisch]; Haacke 1976, 1977, 1978, 1980, 1983ab, 1987, 1990, 1992abcd, 1995 [Nama; Nama/Damara; Khoekhoe]; Haacke & Eiseb 199? [Khoekhoe]; Hahn 1870bc [Nama]; Hegner & Westermann 1909 [Nama]; Knudsen 1854 [Namaqua]; Krönlein 1869 [Nama]; Lewy 1922 [Nama-Hottentottisch]; Meinhof 1905, 1906, 1909ab [Hottentot; Nama]; Meriggi 1931 [Nama-Hottentot]; Moritz [1953, 1969, 1971, 1972a [Nama]; Müller 1877a [Hottentot]; Nienaber 1963, 1990 [Hottentot; Khoekhoen]; Nienaber & Raper 1977ab, 1980 [Hottentot]; Olpp Jr. 1917ab, 1963, 1964, 1977 [Nama]; Olpp Sr. 1887 [Nama-Khoi-Khoin]; Oordt 1907 [Hottentot]; Orthography 1970, 1977 [Nama/Damara]; Pettman 1920, 1922 [Hottentot]; Planert 1905 [Nama]; Rust Jr. 1956, 1959, 1960, 1965, 1969 [Nama]; Raper 1979 [Khoekhoen]; Rust Jr, 1964 [Hottentot]; Schils 1886, 1891, 1884 [Nama]; Schmidt 1970, 1979, 1980 [Nama-Bergdama; Nama]; Schultze 1907ab [Hottentot]; Stopa 1936, 1947 [Nama]; Vedder 1909abc, 1938 [Nama]; Trubetzkoy 1939 [Hottentot]; Vedder 1928 [Hottentot]; Vollmer 1855, 1859 [Nama]; Wallmann 1854, 1857abc, 186? [Nama; Namaqua]; Wandres 1909ab, 1919, 1923, 1926, 1927 [Nama; Nama-Bergdama; Hottentot].


4111 Sesfontein Damara or Ao-Guwun

Sesfontein Dama; Ao-guwun; Aoguwun; Auguwun; 'Ao-kupu.

Classificatory info
Westphal 1971 = Nama (1.11).
Köhler 1981 = Nama (B.III.18d).
Köhler 1987 = Bergdama (Khoe A.1a).
Winter 1981 = 'Ao-kupu (115).

Select references
Haacke 1986 [Sesfontein Damara].


4112 Hai//om, Kedi and Xwaga

Hai//om; Hai-//om; Hai-//nom; Hain//um; Hai-ng//um; Hai-//'om; Haixom; Hai//'om; Hain//om; Hai//omn; Hei//om; Heikum; Hei//kum; Hei-//kum; Hei//um; Heikom; Ovakede; Kedi; Kedde; Keddi; Ovaxwaga; Chwagga; Cwaga; XwagaSan; Saan.

Classificatory info
Westphal 1971 = Hai-ng//um Group (1.30); Hai-ng//um, Kedi & Chwagga (1.31).
Köhler 1981 = Hai//'om (B.III.19).
Köhler 1987 = Hai-//'om (Khoe A.1b).
Winter 1981 = Ha//'om, Cwaga & Kedi (114).

Select references
Stopa 1936 [Hai-//om; Nama-Hai-//omn].


4113 Damara

Dama; Tama; Damara; Bergdama; Berg Damara; Hill Damara; Klipp-Kaffer; !Hom Daman; Gomaxa Daman; /Xomadaman; +Nu-khoen; +Ao-//arasan; +Am-khoen; 'Au-kxoe; +Ao-khwe; /Gowanin; /Gobanin; Tsoa-xou-dama (Swakop Dama); Tsoaxaudaman (Swakop Dama); Tsoaxuudaman (Swakop Dama); Tsoaxudaman (Swakop Dama); !Oe-gân (Erongo Dama); !Oe-gan (Erongo Dama); !Oe +gân (Erongo Dama); !Oe +gan (Erongo Dama); !'Oe +ãã (Erongo Dama?); !'Oe +aa (Erongo Dama?); /Oren; !Omen; !Ommen; Aro-daman; Arodaman; Animin; Oumin; /Geië-daman; /Geio-daman; /Gaiodaman; Aobe-//ain; Aube//aen; Dâuna-daman (Brandberg Dama); Dauna-daman (Brandberg Dama); Dâunâdaman (Brandberg Dama); Daunadaman (Brandberg Dama); Tãuna-tama (Brandberg Dama); Tauna-tama (Brandberg Dama); Dauredaman (Brandberg Dama); Dâuredaman (Brandberg Dama); Daoredaman (Brandberg Dama); Arodaman (Brandberg Dama); Xau-daman; Namidami; Namidama; Namid Dama; Damidaman; !Kuise-daman; !Kuiseb Dama.

Classificatory info
Westphal 1971 = Nama (1.11).
Köhler 1981 = Nama (B.III.18a-b).
Köhler 1987 = Bergdama (Khoe A.1a).
Winter 1981 = Tãuna-tama (116); !'Oe-+ãã (117).

Select references
Hagman 1973, 1977 [Nama Hottentot (= Dama)]; Klein 1976 [Damara]; Krenz 1972 [Bergdama]; Moritz 1971, 1972b [Bergdama]; Schmidt 1970, 1980 [Damara]; Wandres 1909c [Bergdama].


4114 Nama

Nama; Namaqua; Gai-naman; Great Nama; +Namniku; Khogeis?; Kakuya?; Gunungu (Lowlanders); !Gami +nûn (Bondelswarts); !Gami +nun (Bondelswarts); !Gami +nun (Bondelswarts); Gami +nun (Bondelswarts); Karo-!ôan (Tseibs; Keetmanshoopers); Karo-!oan (Tseibs; Keetmanshoopers); Kharo-!oan (Tseibs; Keetmanshoopers); Tsain (Tseibs; Keetmanshoopers); Karo-oas (Tseibs; Keetmanshoopers); //Hawoben (Velskoendraers); //Haboben (Veldschoendragers); !Khara-khoen (Kopers); !Khara-gai-khoen (Kopers); !Kara-gei-khoin (Kopers); !Kara-gei-khain (Kopers); Kai-//xau (Rooinasie?); Gei//khauan (Rooinasie); Gei-//khouan (Rooinasie); Gai-//khauan (Rooinasie); //Khauben (Rooinasie); //Oo-gain (Groot Doden); //Okain (Groot Doden); //O-gain (Groot Doden); //Ogein (Groot Doden); //O-gein (Groot Doden); +Aunîn (Topnaars); +Aunin (Topnaars); +Aonin (!Kuiseb Topnaars); +Ounin (Topnaars); !Gumin (Sesfontein Topnaars); !Gomen (Sesfontein Topnaars); +Aunin (Topnaars); Mu//een (Topnaars); //Khau-/gôan (Swartboois); //Khau-/goan (Swartboois); //Khu-/gôan (Swartboois); //Khu-/goan (Swartboois); //Khauigõan (Swartboois); //Khauigoan (Swartboois); //Khau-/gôan (Swartboois?); //Khau-/goan (Swartboois?).

Classificatory info
Westphal 1971 = Nama (1.11).
Köhler 1981 = Nama (B.III.18a-c).
Köhler 1987 = Nama (Khoe A.1).
Winter 1981 = Kai-//xau (118).

Select references
Beach 1932, 1938 [Kai-//xau (cf. Winter 1981)]; Böhm 1985 [Khoe-kowap]; Budack 1979, 1986 [Khoe-khoen; Khwe-khwen]; Krenz 1972 [Nama]; Moritz 1971, 1972b [Nama]; Schmidt 1970, 1979, 1980 [Nama].


4115 Oorlam or Little Nama

Oorlam; +Kham-naman; Little Nama; !Aman (Bethaniers); !Amain (Bethaniers); +Khari-/khauan (Bersebas; Goliaths); /Hai-/khauan (Bersebas; Goliaths); /Hei-/khauan (Bersebas; Goliaths); /Hei//k//auan (Bersebas; Goliaths); Hei-/khaua (Bersebas; Goliaths); /Hai-/xaua (Bersebas; Goliaths); /Xope-si (Witkams; Witboois?); /Khobesian (Witkams; Witboois); /Khobesin (Witkams; Witboois); /Khowesen (Witkams; Witboois); /Hobesen (Witkams; Witboois); Gai-/khauan (Lamberts; Amraals); Gei/khauan (Lamberts; Amraals); Gei-/khaua (Lamberts; Amraals); Kai-/xaua (Lamberts; Amraals); Kai-//khauan (Lamberts; Amraals); //Aixa//ain (Afrikaners); //Aixa-//ain (Afrikaners); //Aicha-//ais (Afrikaners); Toroxa-//ain (Afrikaners); Toroxa-//ais (Afrikaners); /Hôa-/aran (Afrikaners); /Hoa-/aran (Afrikaners).

Classificatory info
Westphal 1971 = Nama (1.11).
Köhler 1981 = Nama (B.III.18a-b).
Köhler 1987 = Nama (Khoe A.1).
Winter 1981 = Kai-/xaua (119); /Xope-si (120); /Hai-/xaua (121).

Select references
Bruyn 1981 [Oorlams]; Krönlein 1889 [/Hai-/xaua]; Moltke 1976 [Oorlams-Hottentot]; Olpp Sr. 1888 [/Xopesi]; Tindall 1857 [Kai-/xaua].


4120 Gemsbok Nama

Gemsbok Nama.

Classificatory info
Westphal 1971 = Gemsbok Nama (1.14).
Winter 1981 = Gemsbok Nama (114).


4130 Griqua or Xiri

Xiri; Grikwa; Griekwa; Griqua; Gry; Khiri; Gri.

Classificatory info
Westphal 1971 = Xiri, Griqua & Gry (1.13).
Köhler 1981 = Khiri (B.III.20).
Köhler 1987 = Griqua (Khoe A.3).
Winter 1981 = Xiri (126).

Select references
Nurse 1975 [Griqua]; Nurse & Jenkins 1975 [Griqua]; Oberholster 1972 [Griquas]; Rademeyer 1931, 1938 [Griekwas]; Ross 1974, 1976 [Griquas].


4140 Korana or !Ora

!Ora; !Kora; Korana; +'Are-mãã-//'ae; //'Aremã-//'ãis; //'Aremã-//'ais; 'Ãi-//'ae (Riviervolk); +'Oo-xoo (Smaalvange); +'Oxoku (Smaalwange); +Nam-//'ae (Karosshebbers); Kx'am-//'õãkwa; /Hõã-//'ae; /Hõã (Katte); /Hõãn (Katte); +Nuu-//'ae; !Ao (Snyers); !Kaon (Snyers); Kai-!ora; Kx'am-//'õã.

Classificatory info
Westphal 1971 = !Ora (1.12).
Köhler 1981 = !Kora (B.III.21).
Köhler 1987 = !Kora (Khoe A.2).
Winter 1981 = +'Oo-xoo (122); +Nam-//'ae (123) !Ao (124); /Hõã (125); +'Are-mãã-//'ae (127); +Nuu-//'ae (128); Kx'am-//'õã (129); /Hõã-//'ae (130); Kai-!ora (131).

Select references
Engelbrecht 1928, 1936 [Koranna; Korana; +'Are-mãã-//'ae (cf. Winter 1981)]; Lebzelter 1934 [/Hõã]; Lichenstein 1808 [+Nuu-//'ae (cf. Winter 1981)]; Lloyd 1932 [Korana]; Maingard 1962, 1963, 1964, 1967 [Korana; +'Oo-xoo, +Nam-//'ae, !Ao & /Hõã (cf. Winter 1981)]; Meinhof 1930, 1936 [Korana]; Ponelis 1975 [!Ora]; Wuras 1850, 1858, 1920b, 1929 [Korana].


4150 Cape Hottentot

Cape Khoi; Cape Khoe; Cape Hottentot; Kaphottentottisch; +'Oo-xoo (Saldanhamans); Cochoqua; !Ora-//xau; Gorachouqua; Chariguriqua; Goringhaiqua; Goringhaikona; Gouriqua; +Ona; Gonaqua; Chainoqua; !Uri-//'ae; Ubiqua; Inqua; Hai-se; Hessequa; Attaqua; //Hoo-tani (Zakkedragers); Houteniqua; Hoengeiqua; Damaqua; Damasonqua; Einiqua.

Classificatory info
Westphal 1971 = Cape Hottentot (1.13).
Köhler 1981 = Khoe-khoe (B.III.22).
Winter 1981 = +'Oo-xoo (132); !Ora-//xau (133); !Uri-//'ae (134); Hai-se (135); //Hoo-tani (136); Hottentot (137); +Ona (138).

Select references
Flacourt 1658 [+'Oo-xoo]; Juncker 1710 [!Ora-//xau; !Uri-//'ae]; Kolb 1719 [!Ora-//xau; !Uri-//'ae]; Nienaber 1960 [//Hoo-tani]; Sparrmann 1783-1802, 1784, 1785, 1787 [Hai-se (cf. Winter 1981)]; Spohr 1963 [Hottentot]; Thunberg 1788-1793, 1792, 1794, 1795 [Hottentot]; Valentyn 1726 [!Ora-//xau; !Uri-//'ae]; Vaillant 1790abcd [+Ona]; Winkelmann 1791 [Hottentot]; Wreede 1916 [Hottentotse].


4200 Khoe Bushman

Khoe; Tshu-Khwe; Tshu-Khwe Hottentottisch; Central Bushman; Masarwa.

Classificatory info
Bleek 1927 = Central Group (C).
Bleek 1929 = Central Group (C).
Bleek 1956 = Central Group (C).
Westphal 1962 = Tshu-Khwe Hottentottisch.
Westphal 1963 = Tshu-Khwe Hottentottisch.
Westphal 1971 = Tshu-Khwe Group (1.20).
Köhler 1981 = Khoe septentrional (B.I.5-7), Khoe central (B.II.8-17) & Khoe oriental (B.IV.23-33).
Köhler 1987 = Khoe B, C, D, E & F.
Winter 1981 = Nos.64-111.

Select references
Maingard 1961 [Central Group]; Vossen 1984ab, 1986b, 1988, 1990, 1992 [Khoe]; Vossen et al. 1988 [Khoe].


4210 The Kxoe Group

Kxoe; Kxoé; Hukwe; !Hukwe; Kwengo; Khwengo; Vakwengo; Mbarakwengo; Mbarakwena; Mbarakwengo; Galikwe; Gali; Goëkwe; Goe; Garikwe; //Kanikxoe; //Anikxoe; G//ani; /Anekhwe; Bogákxoe; Bogakxoe; Buga; Buka; Búmakxoe; Bumakxoe; Xûkhwe; Xukhwe; Xukwe; Xukhoe; Xu; Xû; Xun; Zama; Vazama; Glandakhwe; Handakhoe; Handá; Handádam; Handákwedam; G+anda; Black Bushman; Water Bushman; Water-Kxoe; Wasser-Kxoe; River Bushman; Khoe Septentrional.

Classificatory info
Bleek 1927 = Hukwe (C.2).
Bleek 1956 = Hukwe (C.2b).
Westphal 1962 = Sumpf-Dialekte.
Westphal 1963 = Nordwestliche Dialekte.
Westphal 1971 = Buka-khwe (1.24a); Handá-khwe (1.24b); G//ani-khwe (1.24c); Xû-khwe (1.24d).
Köhler 1962 = Kxoé-gruppe.
Köhler 1975 = Kxoe.
Köhler 1981 = Khoe septentrional [Kxoe, Hukwe] (B.I.5-7); Kxoe (B.I.5); Bugakhoe (B.I.6); //Kanikhoe (B.I.7).
Köhler 1987 = Khoe E: //Kanikxoe (Khoe e.7a); Kxoe & Hukwe (Khoe E.7b).
Winter 1981 = Handakhoe (104); Galikwe (105); Goëkwe (106); Garikwe (107); //Kanikxoe (108); Bogákxoe (109); Búmakxoe (110); Kxoé (111).

Select references
Almeida 1960b, 1965 [Vazamas; Zama; Kwengo]; Elderkin 1986a [Kxoe]; Heinz 1970 [//Anakwe; Bugakwe]; Köhler 1959, 1962, 1973b, 1974a, 1981b, 1989 [//Kanikhoe; Kxoé]; Vossen 1985, 1986a [//Ani].


4220 The Naro Group

Naro; Nharo; Naró; Naron; Nharon; Nhauru; Nhaurun; //Ai//en; //Aisan; //Ai//ei; //Aikwe; /Aikwe; //Aikwe; Aikwe; Amkwe; /Amkwe; /Anekwe; Ts'ao; Tsao; Tsau; Tsaukwe; Tsaukhwe; Ts'aokhoe; Ts'áokhoe; Ts'aokxoe; Ts'aokxoé; Ts'aurukhoe; Ts'áurúkhoe; Tsorokwe; /Nhaitse; /Nhaintse; N/haitse; N/haintse; N/haits'e; N/haints'e; N/hai-ntse'e; N//hai; !Ko; G!o; !Go; !Kokhoe; G!okwe; Go-ke; Goke; Gokwe; Qábékhoe; Qabékhoe; !Kábakwe; !Kabakwe; !Kabba; !Kabbakwe; Manarwa; Khoe Central.

Classificatory info
Bleek 1927 = Naron, //Aikwe, Tsaukwe & Tsorokwe (C.2).
Bleek 1929 = Naron (C.2).
Bleek 1956 = Naron (C.2); Tsaukwe (C.2a).
Westphal 1962 = Ghanzi-Dialekte.
Westphal 1963 = Westzentrale Dialekte.
Westphal 1971 = N/haints'e (1.25a); Qabekhoe (1.25b); Nharo-n (1.26a).
Köhler 1962 = Naró-Gruppe.
Köhler 1975 = Naró.
Köhler 1981 = Khoe central [Nharo, Naron] (B.II.15-17); Nharo (B.II.15); Tsaokhoe (B.II.16); Qabekhoe (B.II.17).
Köhler 1987 = Khoe B: Naro (Khoe B.4a); Ts'aokhoe (Khoe B.4b).
Winter 1981 = Naró (97); Ts'áokhoe (98); /Hain(n)tse (99); Amkwe (100); !Kokhoe (101); Ts'áurúkhoe (102); Qábékhoe (103).

Select references
Barnard 1976, 1978, 1979, 1980ab, 1985, 1986, 1989 [Nharo]; Bleek 1922, 1928 [Naron]; Guenther 1986 [Nharo]; Kagaya 1978ab [Naron]; Maingard 1961, 1963 [Naron]; Steyn 1971ab, 1981 [Nharo]; Visser 1994 [Naro]; Visser & Visser [Naro]; Vossen 1986c [Naró].


4230 The G//ana Group

G//ana; //Gana; //Ana; //Ganákhoe; G//ana-di-damsa; //Kaná; //Kana; Kanakhoe; Tannakwe; Tanakwe; Tánnekwe; Tannekwe; /Guíkhoe; /Guikhoe; /Gwi; G/wi; Gwikwe; G//wikhwe; G//wi; /Ui; //Gwi; /Gwi; G!wikwe; !Ginkwe; !Gingkwe; G!inkwe; G/ui-kz'uisa; Gwikhwe; Magwikwe; +Xade; +Kade; Kade; Kadi; +Khebákhoe; +Hebákhoe; +Heba; Nyíbekx'ô; Nyibekx'o; Nyibe; Manyibe; Manyibe; Dekwe; Dukwe; Dómkhoe; Dom; Domkwe; //Gaakhoe; G//aa; Tsérekwe; Tsérekhoe; Tserekwe; Tsere; Tcere; Tceré; K'ere; Molepolole; Tsorokwe; //Goro; G//orokhwe; //Gulu; //Golo; Tsila; /Haba.

Classificatory info
Bleek 1927 = !Ginkwe & Tannakwe (C.2).
Westphal 1962 = Zentral-Kalahari Sprachen.
Westphal 1963 = Südwestliche Dialekten.
Westphal 1971 = K'ere-khwe (1.23b); G//ana-khwe (1.27a); Domkhoe (1.27b); +Khebákhoe (1.27c); G//aa-khwe (1.27d); G/wi-khwe (1.27e).
Köhler 1962 = //Kanákhoe-gruppe.
Köhler 1975 = //Ganakhoe.
Köhler 1981 = Khoe central [//Ganakhoe] (B.II.8-14); //Ganakhoe (B.II.8); +Hebakhoe (B.II.9); Domkhoe (B.II.10); Tserekhoe (B.II.11); //Golo (B.II.12); //Gulu (B.II.12a); /Guikhoe (B.II.13); Tsila (B.II.14).
Köhler 1987 = /Guikhoe (Khoe C.5a); //Ganakhoe (Khoe C.5b); Domkhoe (Khoe C.5c); +Hebakhoe (Khoe C.?).
Winter 1981 = //Gulu (64); //Golo (65); //Goro (74); Tsérekhoe (88); //Gaakhoe (89); Dómkhoe (90); Dukwe (91); Nyíbekx'ô (92); +Hebákhoe (93); //Ganákhoe (94); /Guíkhoe (95); Molepolole (96).

Select references
Eibl.Eibesfeldt 1980 [G/wi]; Gruber 1973b [/Gwi]; Maingard 1957, 1961 [//Ganakwe; Molepolole]; Silberbauer 1972 [G/wi]; Tanaka 1978 [G//ana; G/wi].


4240 The Shua Group

Shua; Shuákhoe; Shuakwe; Mashuakwe; Tshúmakwe; Tshumakwe; //Nookhwe; N//oo; N/ookhwe; N/oo; N//ookhwe; Ts'ixakhoe; Ts'ikha; Ts'exa; //'Ayé; //'Aye; //'Aiye; //Aaye; //'Aaye; Danísá; Danísi; Danisi; Danisin; Danisá; Danisa; Danisan; Demisa; Madenasse; Madenassa; Madinnisane; Tshúmakhoe; //Koréèkhoe; //Koree; //Oree; /Oreekhwe; /Koreekhoe; Koree; Borekhoe; /Xaíse; /Xaise; /Haise; /Hais; /Ais; //Aise; /Khaise; Tshidi; Tsh'iti; Tshidikhwe; Tçáiti; Tçaiti; Tcaití; Tcaiti; Sili; Detikhwe; Mateté; Teté; Tete; Teti; Deti; Teaiti; Tletle; Tetí; Kaakhoe; Kwaakhoe; Húra; Hura; Mahúra; Ssehura; Sehura; Mahura; !Hukwe; Hukwe; Ganadi; Ganáde; Ganade; Cara; Khoe Oriental.

Classificatory info
Bleek 1927 = Ssehura (C.2).
Bleek 1956 = Sehura (C.1a).
Westphal 1962 = Shua-Dialekte [Zentrale Dialekte].
Westphal 1963 = Nord-Zentrale Dialekte.
Westphal 1971 = Ganáde (1.21d); Shua-khwe (1.22a); N//oo-khwe (1.22b); //Oree-khwe (1.22c); //'Aiye (1.22d); /Haise (1.22e); Tshidi-khwe (1.22f); Danisi-n (1.22g); Deti-khwe (1.23a).
Köhler 1962 = Shuá-gruppe & Shuá-Untergruppe.
Köhler 1975 = Shuakhoe.
Köhler 1981 = Khoe oriental [Shuakhoe] (B.IV.23-29); Shuakhoe (B.IV.23); Danisa (B.IV.24); /Khaise (B.IV.25); //'Aye (B.IV.26); Teti (B.IV.27); Ts'ikha (B.IV.28); Hura (B.IV.29); Ganadi (B.IV.33).
Köhler 1987 = Teti (Khoe D.6a); Shuakhoe (Khoe D.6b); Ganadi (Khoe D.6c); Ts'ixa (Khoe D.6d); Danisa (Khoe D.?); Hura (Khoe D.?).
Winter 1981 = Ganadi (66); //Nookhwe (75); Ts'ixakhoe (76); Borekhoe (77); Shuákhoe (78); //'Ayé (79); Danisá (80); Tshúmakhoe (81); //Koréèkhoe (82); /Xaíse (83); Tçáiti (84); Húra (85); Tetí (86); !Hukwe (87).


4250 The Tshwa Group

Tshwa; Tywa; Tyhwa; Tyua; Tyhua; Kua; Cua; Kwe-etshori; Kwee; Kwe; Kwe-tshori; Khwe-ntshori; /Haitshori; /Haitshuari; /Haitshuwau; Haitshuari; Hiotshuwau; Hiochuwau; Tshuwau; Chuwau; Chuware; Hie; Hiechware; Chware; Hietshware; Hietshwari; Tati; Hiotshuare; Hitsho; Hietsho; Hietshwa; //Gabake-ntshori; G//abake; Gabake; G//abaketshori; Mohissa; Mohisa; Kobeentshori; Kobee; Kossee-ntshori; Kosee-thsori; Khoe Oriental.

Classificatory info
Bleek 1927 = Tati or Tati-masarwa (C.1); Mohisa (C.2).
Bleek 1929 = Masarwa [Tati] (C.1).
Bleek 1956 = Hietshware (C.1); Mohissa (C.1b).
Westphal 1962 = Östlische Dialekte [Francistown Dialekte].
Westphal 1963 = Nordöstliche Dialekte.
Westphal 1971 = Kwe-etshhori (1.21a); Kobee-ntshhori (1.21b); G//abaka-ntshhori (1.21c).
Köhler 1962 = Shuá-Gruppe; Tywa-Untergruppe.
Köhler 1975 = Tshase.
Köhler 1981 = Khoe oriental [Tshwa] (B.IV.30-32); Tshwa (B.IV.30); Hietshwa(re) (B.IV.31); Mohisa (B.IV.32) ;.
Köhler 1987 = Hietshware (Khoe F.8); /Haitshuari (Khoe F.?); Mohisa (Khoe F.?).
Winter 1981 = Kwe-etshori (67); /Haitshori (68); Hietswari (69); //Gabake-ntshori (70); Mohisa (71); Kobee-ntshori (72); Tshwa (73).

Select references
Dornan 1911, 1917 [Tati]; Köhler 1962 [Tshwa]; Maingard 1961, 1963 [Hietsho; Hietsware]; Passarge 1905, 1907 [Mohisa].


5000 Kwadi

Kwadi; Kwepe; Cuepe; Cuanhoca; Coroca; Curoca; Korika; Bakoroka; Makoroko; Mucoroca; Zorotua; Zorotwa; Vasorontu; Kwise; Bakise; Bacuisso; Bakuise; Bakwisso; Moquisse; Kwisso; Vakuise; Moquise; Khoe Marginal.

Classificatory info
Westphal 1971 = Kwadi (1.40); Kwadi (5.00?).
Köhler 1981 = Khoe marginal [Kwadi] (B.V.34); Kwadi, Kwepe & Coroca (B.V.34).
Köhler 1987 = Kwadi (Khoe G.9).
Winter 1981 = Kwadi (139).

Select references
Almeida 1960a, 1965 [Kwadi; Kwá Kuroka; Kwepe].


6000 Sandawe

Sandawe; Sandaui; Sandawi; Sandwe; Kissandaui.

Classificatory info
Westphal 1971 = Sandawe (7.00).
Winter 1981 = Sandawe (140).

Select references
Bagshawe 1925abcd, 1926 [Sandawe]; Copland 1938 [Sandawe]; Dalgish 1979 [Sandawe]; Dempwolff 1916 [Sandawe]; Drexel 1929 [Sandawe]; Elderkin 1983, 1986b, 1991, 1992 [Sandawe]; Fleming 1986 [Sandawe]; Kimmenade 1936, 1954 [Sandawe]; Nigmann 1909 [Kissandaui]; Raa 1966, 1969 [Sandawe]; Trombetti 1910 [Wa-Sandawi]; Tucker, Bryan & Woodburn 1977 [Sandawe]; Voogt 1992 [Sandawe].


7000 Hadza

Hadza; Hatsa; Hadzape; Hadzapi; Hadzabi; Kindiga; Tindiga; Wakindiga; Wakindega; Kangeju.

Classificatory info
Bleek 1956 = Hadza (C.3).
Westphal 1971 = Hatsa (6.00).
Winter 1981 = Hadza (141).

Select references
Bleek 1931b [Hadzapi]; Cooper 1949 [Kindiga]; Dempwolff 1917 [Hatsa]; Elderkin 1978, 1979, 1982, 1983, 1992 [Hadza]; Fleming 1986 [Hadza]; Husioka 1973 [Tindiga]; Obst 1912 [Wakindega]; Olson 196? [Hadza]; Sands, Maddieson & Ladefoged 1993 [Hadza]; Tucker, Bryan & Woodburn 1977 [Hadza]; Voogt 1992 [Hatsa].

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